If the muscle tests "stronger," the substance supposedly can remedy problems in the corresponding body parts. Testing is also claimed to indicate which nutrients are deficient. If a weak muscle becomes stronger after a nutrient or a food high in the nutrient is chewed, that supposedly indicates "a deficiency normally associated with that muscle.
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According to this theory, when a muscle tests "weak," the provocative substance is bad for the patient. AK "treatment" may include special diets, food supplements, acupressure finger pressure on various parts of the body , and spinal manipulation . Goodheart states that AK techniques can also be used to evaluate nerve, vascular, and lymphatic systems; the body's nutritional state; the flow of "energy" along "acupuncture meridians"; and "cerebro spinal fluid function.
Its pamphlet on infections and child health states:. When an infection develops, have your child examined by your doctor using applied kinesiology. He can evaluate the energy patterns and usually find the reason that the infection developed in the first place. By correcting the energy patterns within the body and paying specific attention to nutritional supplements and dietary management, the infection which your child using natural health care does develop will be adequately taken care of in most cases . Although the claims of applied kinesiology are so far removed from scientific reality that testing them might seem a waste of time, competent researchers have subjected the muscle-testing procedures to several well-designed controlled tests and demonstrated what should be obvious to rational persons.
Some have found no difference in muscle response from one substance to another, while others have found no difference between the results with test substances and with placebos.
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One study, for example, found that three practitioners testing eleven subjects made significantly different assessments; their diagnoses of nutritional deficiencies did not correspond to the nutrient levels obtain by blood serum analysis; and that the responses to nutrient substances did not significantly differ from responses to placebos .
Another study found no effect from administering the nutrients "expected" to strengthen a muscle diagnosed as "weak" by AK practitioners. Five out of nine did so . Some people who undergo AK muscle-testing report that although they resisted as hard as they could, the practitioner was still able to pull down their arm.
Distraction can also play a role. Touching another part of the body just before pulling down the arm may cause the patient to focus less on resisting. But trickery deliberate or unconscious may also be a factor. A sudden slight upward movement can cause a "set" muscle to relax so that it can be immediately pulled downward. I have found that when this is done quickly, the person being tested is unlikely to detect the upward motion.
Try this on a friend. The International College of Applied Kinesiology ICAK , founded in the mids, has set "standards" based on the work of Goodheart and his followers who allege they have subjected AK to "extensive scientific study. According to ICAK's status statement:.
Applied kinesiology procedures are not intended to be used as a single method of diagnosis. Applied kinesiology examination should enhance standard diagnosis, not replace it. There are both lay persons and professionals who use a form of manual muscle testing without the necessary expertise to perform specific and accurate tests.
Some fail to coordinate the muscle testing findings with other standard diagnostic procedures. These may be sources of error that could lead to misinterpretation of the condition present, and thus improper treatment, or failure to treat the appropriate condition . Muscle testing and "meridian" theories are involved in many other treatment systems used mainly by chiropractors:.
NOT's proponents claim that "blocked neural pathways" caused by misaligned skull bones can cause learning disorders, cerebral palsy, schizophrenia, Down's syndrome, colorblindness, bedwetting, nightmares, and various other problems. Its practitioners claim that "adjusting" these bones by applying pressure to various structures of the head can cure these problems. This claim is not only unsubstantiated but clashes with the fact that the bones of the skull are tightly fused by age two. NOT's originator, Carl A. Ferreri, D. NOT came to public attention in when chiropractors subjected children to it in a "research" program sponsored by school officials in Del Norte County, California.
For five months, dozens of children from age four to sixteen, with epilepsy, Down's syndrome, cerebral palsy, dyslexia, and various other learning disorders, were "treated" by having their skull compressed with viselike hand pressure. The children were also forced to endure painful thumb pressure against the roof of the mouth and finger pressure against their eyes.
According to news reports, the children struggled, cried, and screamed as they were forcibly restrained. One reportedly experienced his first seizure when his eye sockets were "adjusted. Contact Reflex Analysis CRA proponents claim that over a thousand health problems can be diagnosed with a muscle test during which the chiropractor's finger or hand is placed on one of 75 "reflex points" on the patient's body. If the patient's arm can be pulled downward, a condition corresponding to the "reflex" is considered present, and dietary supplements typically made from freeze-dried vegetables or animal organs are prescribed.
CRA's chief proponent,. Dick A. Versendaal, D. Neuro Emotional Technique NET focuses on "releasing patients' emotional blocks stored in the body's memory. According to a recent article, when chronic patients do not seem to get better over a course of treatment, and where structure, nutrition and "toxicity" have been addressed, NET practitioners look for a "Neuro Emotional Complex NEC " that they feel is preventing healing.
The practitioner then use muscle testing to "isolate a troublesome event," then ask the patient to hold in mind a "snapshot" of the emotional state while the chiropractor adjusts the patient's spine and prescribes supplement products and homeopathic remedies.
Applied kinesiology research paper
In a sense, the early work of Goodheart and Kendall has influenced generations of practitioners spanning many disciplines and has become consensus methodologies across a broad spectrum of professionals. Even the American Medical Association has accepted that the standard method of MMT used in AK is a reliable tool and advocates its use for the evaluation of disability impairments. The organization is multi-disciplinary; membership includes medical doctors, osteopaths, dentists, psychologists, and other health care providers who are licensed to diagnose patients. Medical practitioners using AK vary by country.
There are nearly 1, medical doctors in Germany, for instance, who use AK as part of their diagnostic system. There have been 35 separate books published about AK methods since George Goodheart, Jr. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, ;20 5 Janda V. Muscle Function Testing.
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London: Butterworths; Liebenson C. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers; Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc; Bergmark A: Stability of the lumbar spine. A study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthop Scand ; American Medical Association. Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 5th Edition. Time Magazine profile. Accessed January 23, International College of Applied Kinesiology, Deutschland.
Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, Goodheart, GJ, Jr. Kinesiology and Dentistry. J Amer Soc Psychosomatic Disease Scopp A. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry. On the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing: a literature review, Chiropr Osteopat.
Association of manual muscle tests and mechanical neck pain: Results from a prospective pilot study. J Bodyw Mov Ther , Accepted for publication Cuthbert S, Rosner AL. Conservative management of post-surgical urinary incontinence in an adolescent: A case history. Altern Med Rev , Accepted for publication. Physican causes of anxiety and sleep disorders: a case report. Altern Ther Health Med , In press Applied Kinesiology management of long-term head pain following automotive injuries: a case report.
Chiropr J Austr ; 40 3 : Applied Kinesiology methods for a child with headaches, neck pain, asthma, and reading disabilities: a case study. J Chiropr Med ; 9 issue number : Conable KM. Intraexaminer comparison of applied kinesiology manual muscle testing of varying durations: a pilot study. J Chiropr Med ;9 1 Blum C, Cuthbert S. Developmental delay syndromes and chiropractic: A case report.
J Ped Matern Fam Health. Aug 3 Maffetone P.
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